In the context of ISO 22000, the term
continual improvement refers
to an ongoing need to improve the
effectiveness of a food safety
management system (FSMS). The effectiveness of any FSMS can
improved through the use of
management reviews, internal audits, corrective
updates, verification research, and validation
Control measures are actions or
activities that are used to manage
food safety hazards.
Control measures must be capable
of preventing or eliminating food
safety hazards or reducing them
to an acceptable level.
See Codex at
for examples of specific control measures.
A correction is any action that is taken to
eliminate a nonconformity.
In the context of the ISO 22000 standard, a
correction is any action
that is taken to deal specifically with potentially
may include the following types of actions:
reprocessing or further processing of potentially unsafe products,
them to a different use, or simply destroying them.
In the context of this standard, a correction is
not the same as a
corrective action (see below). Corrections are
carried out in order to
deal immediately with unsafe products, while
corrective actions are
designed to prevent recurrence by addressing causes.
actions often take a longer term perspective and tend to take a
more systemic approach.
Corrective actions are steps that are taken to
eliminate the causes
of an existing nonconformity. The corrective action process
causal analysis and is designed to prevent recurrence.
A critical control point (CCP) is the point (or
step) at which a
control measure must be applied. It is a point that
is critical or
essential to safety. It is the point where a control measure can
be used to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or to
reduce it to an
Critical limits (see below) are set at critical
A critical limit is a criterion or boundary that is
used to distinguish
between what is acceptable
(safe) and what is unacceptable
(unsafe). A critical limit is a value of a parameter or variable.
Critical limits (values) are used to ensure that a
safe food products. When critical limits are violated or
products are deemed to be potentially unsafe.
Critical limits are established at
They are used to determine whether or not a CCP is still under
control. Whenever critical limits are violated or exceeded, CCPs
are out of
control and the associated products are considered
to be potentially unsafe.
An end product is a finished product. It requires
processing or transformation. However, an end product for
one organization could be an ingredient or raw material for
The food chain
consists of the entire sequence of stages and
operations involved in the creation and consumption of
products. This includes every step
from initial production to final
consumption. It includes the production,
storage, and handling of all food and food
The food chain also includes organizations that do
handle food. These include organizations that produce feed for
animals that produce food and organizations that produce feed
for animals that will be used as food. It also
that produce materials that will eventually come into
food or food ingredients.
concept is this: food will not harm the
consumer so long as intended use
guidelines are followed when
it is prepared or eaten. Conversely, food is
whenever it has been exposed to hazardous agents and
intended use guidelines have not been followed.
food safety hazard is an agent or condition that could
potentially cause an adverse human health
are either in or
on food and can be either biological, chemical,
or physical. Furthermore,
the condition of the food itself can
also be hazardous.
Food safety hazards can also be found in or on
animal feed and
feed ingredients. Since these may be transferred to food through
the consumption of animal products, they can also cause adverse
Organizations that do not directly handle food and feed
compromise food safety. These include producers of packaging
cleaning agents, and other products that eventually come
into contact with food
or feed. If such products have been exposed
to hazardous agents and they come
into contact with food or feed,
adverse human health effects can occur.
A food safety hazard analysis is done in order to
hazards need to be controlled, how much control is needed, and
which combination of control measures should be used in order to
make sure that
food is safe. In the context of ISO 22000 (section 7.4),
a food safety hazard
analysis is carried out in the following way:
1. Identify your organizationís
food safety hazards.
2. Pinpoint where each hazard may be introduced.
3. Specify acceptable hazard levels for each hazard.
4. Assess each hazard and decide how to control it.
5. Select control measures to control your hazards.
6. Use OPRPs and HACCP plans to manage hazards.
operational prerequisite programs.
HACCP is hazard analysis critical control
A food safety
management system (FSMS) is a network of
interrelated elements that
combine to ensure that food does not
adverse human health effects. These elements include
policies, procedures, practices, processes, goals,
controls, roles, responsibilities, relationships,
documents, records, and
resources. A FSMS is often one part of a
larger management system.
In spite of the fact that it is all about establishing a
management system, ISO 22000 does not formally define this
As a result, weíve given it a try.
A food safety policy statement formally defines an
commitment to food safety. It expresses, in general terms, what
top management intends to do about food safety and describes
the direction the
organization wishes to take.
More precisely, a food safety policy statement
should express an
organizationís commitment to the implementation and ongoing
maintenance of its food safety management system (FSMS).
The food safety policy should drive the establishment of the
FSMS and should
also encourage people to update and
improve its overall effectiveness.
A food safety record is a document that contains
which shows how well food safety activities are being
what kind of results are being achieved. It always documents what
has happened in the past.
HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical
HACCP is a methodology and a management system. It is used
to identify, prevent, and control food safety hazards. HACCP
use the following methodology:
1. Conduct a
2. Identify critical control points (CCPs).
3. Establish critical limits for each critical control point.
Develop procedures to monitor critical control points.
5. Design corrective actions to handle critical limit
6. Create a food safety record keeping system.
verify your safety system.
HACCP was developed by the Codex Alimentarius
While we characterize the seven steps as a methodology,
they are traditionally referred to as HACCP principles.
An HACCP plan is a written document that describes how
to manage and control your organizationís food safety hazards.
plan contains at least the following information:
Critical control points (CCPs).
Hazards that will be controlled at each CCP.
Control measures that will be used at each CCP.
Critical limits that will be applied at each CCP.
5. Procedures that will be used to monitor CCPs.
6. Actions that will be taken when limits are violated.
Consider using your HACCP plan
to manage a
- If strict control must be applied.
- If your control measure is likely to fail in the
- If a control failure would have severe consequences.
- If monitoring and rapid
corrective action is feasible.
- If your control measure must be able to cope
with significant processing
- If your control measure is designed to eliminate
or reduce the level of a specific food safety
- If your control measure's place in the system makes
it convenient to make it part of your HACCP plan.
- If a control measure helps to boost the effectiveness
of another control
measure that is also part of your
If the above conditions do not seem to apply
to your specific
control measure, consider using an
program (OPRP) to manage it.
NOTE: HACCP plans use
critical control points (CCPs) and
critical limits to control food safety hazards,
prerequisite programs (OPRPs) do not.
internal audit is a systematic evidence
that is carried out in order to determine how well a
management system (FSMS)
meets a set of expectations.
According to section 8.4.1 of this standard, your
should determine how well your FSMS complies with both the
ISO 22000 requirements as well as your organizationís own
arrangements. In addition, section 8.4.1
expects internal auditors to evaluate
how well the FSMS
has been implemented and how well it is being updated
purpose of a management review is to evaluate the overall
performance of an organization's
food safety management system
identify improvement opportunities. These reviews are
carried out by the organization's top managers and are done
on a regular
In the context of ISO 22000, nonconforming products are
that are potentially unsafe. They are potentially unsafe because they
were produced or manufactured during a period when
were violated or exceeded or when an organization has lost
of a prerequisite program (PRP) or
an operational prerequisite
prerequisite programs (OPRPs) are prerequisite
programs (PRPs) that are
essential. They are essential because
a hazard analysis has shown that they are
necessary in order
to control specific food safety hazards.
used to reduce the likelihood that products will be
exposed to hazards, that
they will be contaminated, and that hazards
will proliferate. OPRPs are also
used to reduce the likelihood that the
environment will be exposed to hazards,
that it will be
contaminated, and that hazards will proliferate in that
Consider using an operational
(OPRP) to manage a control
- If strict control is not needed.
- If your control measure is unlikely to fail
in the future.
- If a control failure would not have severe
- If monitoring and
rapid corrective action
is not feasible.
- If your control measure does not need to be
to cope with significant processing variability.
- If your control measure is not designed to
or reduce the level of a specific food
- If your control
measure's place in the system
makes it convenient to make it part of
- If a control measure helps to boost the
another control measure that is also part of your OPRP.
If the above conditions do not apply to your
measure, consider using your HACCP plan
to manage it.
NOTE: HACCP plans use
control points (CCPs) and
to control food safety hazards, while OPRPs do not.
Prerequisite programs (PRPs) are the
conditions that must be
the food chain and the activities and
practices that must be performed in order to establish and maintain
environment. PRPs must be suitable and be capable of
producing safe end products
and providing food that is safe for
human consumption. PRPs support
In order to select the most suitable PRPs,
must consider their type of organization and their own unique
circumstances, as well as the capabilities of their suppliers and
providers. In order to select the most suitable PRPs, they
must also consider
customer needs and expectations; they must
consider statutory and regulatory
requirements; they must consider
good practices in their segment of the food
chain; and they must
consider all relevant standards and guidelines.
PRPs are also referred to as good hygienic
good agricultural practices, good production practices,
good manufacturing practices, good distribution practices,
and good trading
See the Codex website at
examples of PRPs and access to all food safety publications.
control processes or activities. A well defined
procedure controls a logically
distinct process or activity, including
the associated inputs and
outputs. Such a procedure defines the
work that should be done, and explains how it should be done,
should do it, and under what circumstances. In addition, it
what authority and what responsibility has been
supplies and materials should be used, and which documents and
be used to carry out the work. While procedures may
be documented or undocumented, ISO usually expects
them to be
Traceability is the ability to identify and trace
the history, location,
and application of products and materials. A
follows the trail as products and materials come from
suppliers and are processed
and distributed as end products.
An update is an immediate or planned activity. Its
to ensure that the most recent information is being applied.
Validation is a process that is used to ensure that
control measures are capable of being effective. The validation
process uses evidence to determine whether control measures
are capable of
controlling food safety hazards and ensuring
that end products are safe.
Control measures must be validated before they are
Control measures are implemented and managed using
prerequisite programs (OPRPs) and HACCP plans.
Verification is a process that uses objective evidence
that specified requirements have been met. In the context of this
ISO 22000 standard, you are expected to verify that your
safety management system (FSMS) has been
More precisely, you are expected to do at least the following:
1. Verify that your
PRPs have been implemented.
2. Verify that
hazard analysis inputs are updated.
3. Verify that your hazard levels are acceptable.
4. Verify that
OPRPs are implemented and effective.
5. Verify that HACCP plan is implemented and effective.
6. Verify that procedures are implemented and